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مصطلحات النقل البحري

  • a.a.r.
    Against all risks
  • A.F.
    Advanced freight
  • A.I.M.U.
    American Institute of Marine Underwriters
  • A.R.
    All risks
  • A/C
    Account current
  • A/P
    Additional premium
  • Acc.
    Acceptance. Accepted
  • accomplished bill of lading
    Original bill of lading surrendered to the carrying ship at the discharge port in exchange for the goods.
  • Ad Val
    Ad Valorem
  • Air Waybill (Of Lading)
    A signed receipt and a contract to deliver goods by air. Such bills are non
  • amt.
  • Arbitration Clause
    A clause in a sales contract outlining the method under which disputes will be settled.
  • Bank Release
    Negotiable time draft drawn on and accepted by a bank which adds its credit to that of an importer of merchandise.
  • c.i.f. & e.
    Cost, insurance, freight and exchange
  • d.p.r.
    Daily pro rata
  • Det.
  • European Coal and Steel Community
    The ECSC (French: Communaute Europeenne du Charbon et de l'Acier, CECA) undertakes activities to operate a common market in coal and steel; to remove barriers to trade in coal, coke, steel, pig
  • European Coal and Steel Community
    See: European Community.
  • N/a
    No advice, No account, Not applicable
  • open top container
    Shipping container that has an open top instead of a solid roof to enable cargo, such as timber, to be loaded from the top. The container is covered by waterproof sheeting while in transit.
  • P/N
    Promissory note
  • Shipment
    A shipment is all of the cargo carried under the terms of a single bill of lading.
  • a.a.
    "Always afloat, after arrival"
  • A.A.D.
    Annual aggregate deductible
  • A.H.F.
    American hull form (insurance policy)
  • A.M.I.
    Absolute maximum loss
  • A.O. Voy.
    Any one voyage
  • A.P.L.
    As per list
  • A/o
    Account of
  • A/R
    All risks. Against all risks
  • A/v
    "Average, ad valorem (according to value)"
  • Abdnt.
  • Abt.
  • Acct
  • Ad Valorem
    Literally: according to value. Any charge, tax, or duty that is applied as a percentage of value. "
  • Ad Valorem Equivalent
    "AVE is the rate of duty which would have been required on dutiable imports under that item, if the United States customs value of such imports were based on the United States port of entry value. "
  • AD Valorem Tariff
    "A tariff assessed as a percentage of the value of the goods cleared through customs. For example, 10 percent Ad Valorem means the tariff is 10 percent of the value of the goods."
  • Ad. val.
    Ad valorem
  • Affiliate
    An affiliate is a business enterprise located in one country which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by a person of another country to the extent of 10 percent or more of its voting securities for an incorporated business enterprise or equity.
  • African Export
    Import Bank
  • Agent/Distributor Service
    "The Agent/Distributor Service, ADS, is an International Trade Administration (ITA) fee
  • Agreement
    Agreement by one government to accept the accreditation of an ambassador from another government.
  • Air Cargo Agent
    A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo and acts for airlines that pay him a fee (usually 5%). The Air Cargo Agent is registered with the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  • Air Freight Forwarder
    "A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. The Air Freight Forwarder usually consolidates the air shipments of various exporters, charging them for actual weight and deriving his profit by paying the airline the lower consolidated rate. He "
  • Air Waybill
    "An AWB is a bill of lading which covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non
  • All
    Risk Clause
  • All Risks Coverage
    "All Risks Coverage, a type of marine insurance, is the broadest kind of standard coverage, but excludes damage caused by war, strikes, and riots."
  • Alongside
    "A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods to be delivered ""alongside"" are to be placed on the dock or lighter within reach of the transport ship's tackle so that they can be loaded aboard the ship. Goods are delivered to the port of embarkation, b"
  • AMB
  • Amendments
    Article XXX of the GATT Agreement provides that amendments (that become effective upon acceptance by two thirds of the Contracting Parties) are to be effective only for those parties which accept them.
  • American Business Center
    "The ABC program provides U.S. companies which are exploring or
  • ANF
    Arrival notification form
  • Annual Survey
    The inspection of a ship pursuant to international conventions, by a classification society surveyor, on behalf of the flag state, that takes place every year.
  • Appd.
  • Arbitrage
    The practice of exchanging the currency of one country for that of another or a series of countries to gain an advantage from the differences in exchange rates.
  • arrest
    Seizure of a ship by an authority of a court of law either as a debt security or to prevent the ship from departing until a dispute is settled.
  • Articles
    Technical Working Group (TWG): which provides on technical issues related to the U.S. Munitions List.
  • Assessment
    The imposition of antidumping duties on imported merchandise.
  • At. wt.
    Atomic Weight
  • Atl.
  • Aux.
    Auxiliary Vessel
  • Av.
  • Av. disbts.
    Average disbursements
  • AWB
    Airway Bill
  • B.D.I.
    Both days inclusive
  • b.d.i.
    Both dates inclusive
  • B.S.T.
    British Summer Time
  • b.t.
    Berth terms
  • B/D
    "Bank Draft, bar draft (grain trade)"
  • B/E
    "Bill of Exchange, Bill of Entry"
  • B/G
    Bondage goods
  • B/L
    Bill of Landing
  • B/L
    Bill of Lading
  • B/O
    Brought over
  • B/P
    Bills payable
  • B/R
    Bills receivable. Builders' risks. Bordeaux or Rouen (grain trade)
  • B/s
    "Bags, Bales"
    General License
  • Bal.
  • Balance of Payments Consultations
    The coordination between the GATT and the IMF to ensure
  • ballast
    "A heavy weight, usually sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship at sea that is not carrying cargo."
  • Ballast
    A voyage during which the ship is not laden with cargo.
  • Bank Guarantee
    "An assurance, obtained from a bank by a foreign purchaser; that the bank will pay an exporter up to a given amount for goods shipped if the foreign purchaser defaults. (see: Letter of Credit.)"
  • Bank Holding Company
    "Any company which directly or indirectly owns or controls, with power to
  • Banker's Acceptance
    "A banker's acceptance is a draft drawn on and accepted by a bank. Depending on the bank's creditworthiness, the acceptance becomes a financial instrument which can be discounted."
  • Bar.
  • Bareboat Charter
    A charter of a ship under which the ship owner is usually paid a fixed amount of charter hire for a certain period of time during which the charterer is responsible for the ship operating expenses and voyage expenses of the ship and for the management of the ship, including crewing. A bareboat charter is also known as a "demise charter" or a "time charter by demise."
  • base cargo
    Relatively heavy cargo stowed at the bottom of a hold to provide a ship with stability when at sea or a minimum quantity of cargo required by a shipping line for calling at a port for loading.
  • bbls
  • Bd.
    "Bound, bond"
  • Bdls
  • Bds.
    Boards (timber)
  • berth
    A location alongside a quay where a ship loads or discharges cargo.
  • BFC
    Business Facilitation Center
  • Bg.
  • bhp
    Brake horsepower
  • BI
    Business Information Office
  • BIA
    Best Information Available
  • bill of lading
    "A document issued by a ship owner to a shipper of goods. It serves as a receipt for the goods, contract of carriage, and document of title."
  • Bill of Lading
    "Bills of lading are contracts between the owner of the goods and the carrier.
  • Bk.
    "Back, Backwardation, Book"
  • Bkge.
    "Breakage, brokerage"
  • Bls.
    Bales. Barrels
  • booking
    Reservation made by a shipper or his agent with a carrier to carry certain defined goods between locations.
  • BOP
    Balance of Payments
  • BOT
    Balance of Trade
  • Brl.
  • Bulk Cargo
    "Bulk cargo is unbound as loaded and carried aboard ship; it is without mark or count, in a loose unpackaged form, and has homogeneous characteristics."
  • bulk cargo
    Unpacked dry cargo such as grain or coal.
  • bunkers
    A ship's fuel.
  • Bunkers
    Heavy fuel and diesel oil used to power a ship's engines.
  • C
  • C&F
    Cost and Freight
  • C&F Named Port
    Cost and freight. All costs of goods and transportation to the named port are included in the price quoted. Buyer pays insurance while aboard ship up to overseas inland destination.
  • C.
    Collected, Currency, Coupon, Coast
  • C. & D.
    Collected and delivered
  • c. & f.
    Cost and freight
  • c. & i.
    Cost and insurance
  • C.&I.
    Cost and insurance
  • c.f.
    Cubic feet. Carried forward
  • c.f.i.
    Cost, freight and insurance
  • c.i.f.c.i.
    Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest
  • C.O.B.
    Cargo on board
  • C.O.D.
    Cash on delivery
  • C.P.A.
    Claims payable abroad
  • c.p.d.
    Charterers' pay dues
  • C.W.
    Commercial weight
  • c/i
    Certificate of insurance
  • C/P
    Charter Party, Custom of Port (grain trade)
  • c/s
  • CAD
    Cash Against Documents
    Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • Canc.
  • cancl.
  • cap
  • CAR
    Commercial Activity Report
  • cargo
    Goods carried in or on a ship
  • Cash Against Documents
    A term denoting that payment is made when the bill of lading is presented.
  • Cash Against Documents (C.A.D.)
    A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission house.
  • Cash In Advance (C.I.A.)
    A method of payment for goods in which the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of the goods. Usually employed when the goods are built to order, such as specialized machinery.
  • Cash With Order
    CWO is a means of payment in which the buyer pays cash when ordering; the order is binding on both seller and buyer.
  • Cash With Order (C.W.O.)
    A method of payment for goods in which cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.
  • CCFF
    Compensatory and Contingency Financing Facility
  • CD
  • Certificate of Delivery
    See: Delivery Verification Certificate.
  • Certificate of Inspection
    A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition immediately prior to shipment. Pre
  • Certificate of Manufacture
    A document (often notarized) in which a producer of goods certifies that the manufacturing has been completed and the goods are now at the disposal of the buyer.
  • Certificate of Origin
    Certain nations require a signed statement as to the origin of the export item. Such certificates are usually obtained through a semiofficial organization such as a local chamber of commerce. A certificate may be required even though the commercial invoice contains the information.
  • Certificate Of Origin
    A certified document as to the origin of goods, used in foreign commerce.
  • Charter
    The hire of a ship for a specified period of time or a particular voyage to carry a cargo from a loading port to a discharging port. The contract for a charter is commonly called a charterparty.
  • Charter Party
    Renting of an entire vessel or part of its freight space for a particular trip or stipulated period of time.
  • Charterer
    The party that hires a ship for a period of time or for a voyage.
  • Charterhire
    A sum of money paid to the shipowner by a charterer for the use of a ship. Charterhire paid under a voyage charter is also known as "freight."
  • CHB
    Customhouse Broker
  • CHG
    Charge d'Affaires
  • chq.
  • cif
    Cost, insurance, freight
  • CIF
    Classification society
  • CIT
    Court of International Trade
  • CIV
    Customs Import Value
  • CJ
    Commodity Jurisdiction
  • Classification society
    An independent organization that certifies that a ship has been built and maintained according to the organization's rules for that type of ship and complies with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of the ship's registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. A ship that receives its certification is referred to as being "in
  • cld.
  • Clean Bill of Lading
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were received in "apparent good order and condition," without damages or other irregularities.
  • Clean Draft
    A draft to which no documents have been attached.
  • Cmpl.
  • Com.
  • Commercial Code
    A published code designed to reduce the total number of words required in a cablegram.
  • Commercial Invoice
    The commercial invoice is a bill for the goods from the seller to the buyer. These invoices are often used by governments to determine the true value of goods for the assessment of customs duties and are also used to prepare consular documentation. Governments using the commercial invoice to control imports often specify its form, content, number of copies, language to be used, and other characteristics.
  • Common Market
    A common market (as opposed to a free trade area) has a common external tariff and may allow for labor mobility and common economic policies among the participating nations. The European Community is the most notable example of a common market.
  • Commonwealth
    A commonwealth is a free association of sovereign independent states that has no charter, treaty, or constitution. The association promotes cooperation, consultation, and mutual assistance among members. The British Commonwealth (with headquarters in London, England) is the most notable example; it included 50 states at the beginning of 1991.
  • Comp. T.L.
    Compromised total loss
  • Compensation
    A GATT principle which holds that if any member country raises a tariff above its bound rate, withdraws a binding or otherwise violates a trade concession with GATT justification, the party must lower other tariffs or make other concessions to offset the disadvantage suffered by trading partners or face offsetting actions (retaliation) by affected parties.
  • Concession
    A tariff reduction, tariff binding, or other agreement to reduce import restrictions; usually accorded pursuant to negotiation in return for concessions by other parties.
  • Conds.
  • Consgt.
  • Consignee
    The person or firm named in a freight contract to whom goods have been consigned or turned over. For export control purposes, the documentation differentiates between an "intermediate" consignee and an "ultimate" consignee.
  • consignee
    Person to whom goods are to be delivered at a particular destination by a carrier.
  • Consignee Marks
    A symbol placed on packages for export for identification purposes; generally consisting of a triangle, square, circle, diamond, cross, with letters and/or numbers as well as port of discharge.
  • Consignment
    Delivery of merchandise from an exporter (the consignor) to an agent (the consignee) under agreement that the agent sell the merchandise for the account of the exporter. The consignor retains title to the goods until sold. The consignee sells the goods for commission and remits the net proceeds to the consignor.
  • Consignor
    Person who gives goods to a carrier for delivery to a consignee.
  • Consul
    A government official residing in a foreign country who is charged with the representation of the interests of his country and its nationals.
  • Consumption Entry
    An official form used for declaration of value, description and the total duty due on such transaction.
  • Container
    Box, in several standard sizes, designed to enable goods to be sent several places without the contents being touched.
  • Container
    A uniform, sealed, reusable metal "box" in which merchandise is shipped by vessel, truck, or rail. Standard lengths include 10, 20, 30, and 40 feet (40 foot lengths are generally able to hold about 40,000 pounds). Containers of 45 and 48 feet are also used, as well as containers for shipment by air.
  • Conv.
  • CPT
    Carriage Paid To
  • Cr.
    Credit, Creditor
  • Credit Risk Insurance
    Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
  • Credit Risk Insurance
    A form of insurance which protects the seller against loss due to default on the part of the buyer.
  • Cts.
  • Cum.
    With, Cumulative
  • Customs Tariff
    A schedule of charges assessed by the federal government on imported and/or exported goods.
  • CV
    Constructed Value
  • CW
    Cash With Order
  • CXT
    Common External Tariff
  • D
  • d
  • D
    District Office
  • D.
    Delivery, Delivered
  • D.A.A.
    Documents against acceptance
  • d.b.
    Deals and battens (timber)
  • D.B.
    Day Book, Deals and battens (timber trade)
  • d.b.b.
    Deals, battens and boards
  • D.D.
    Damage done
  • D.D.C.
    Damage done in collision
  • D.D.C.
    Damage done in collision
  • D.D.E.
    Direct data entry
  • D.D.E.
    Direct data entry
  • d.d.o.
    Despatch discharging only
  • D.F.
    Direction finder
  • d.f.
    Dead freight
  • d.l.o.
    Dispatch loading only
  • d.l.o.
    Despatch loading only
  • d.p.
    Direct port
  • D.R.C.
    Damaged received in collision
  • D.T.B.A.
    Days to be agreed, date to be advised
  • D.T.I.
    Department of Trade and Industry
  • d.w.
  • D.W.A.T.
    Deadweight all told
  • d.w.c.
    Deadweight capacity
  • d.w.t.
    Deadweight tonnage
  • D/A
    Documents Against Acceptance
  • D/A
    Deposit account, Days after acceptance, Documents against acceptance, Discharge afloat, Deductible average
  • D/C
    Deviation clause
  • D/D
    Demand Draft, Delivered at Docks, Damage Done
  • D/d
    Days after date, Days' date
  • D/N
    Debit note
  • D/O
    Delivery order
  • D/P
    Documents against payment
  • D/R
    Deposit receipt
  • D/s
    Days after sight
  • D/V
    Dual Valuation
  • D/W
    Dock warrant
  • DA
    Development Assistance
  • DAC
    Development Assistance Committee
    Data on Consulting Firms
  • DAEs
    Dynamic Asian Economies
  • Dairy Export Incentive Program
    DEIP, one of four export subsidy programs operated by the Department of Agriculture, helps U.S. exporters meet prevailing world prices for targeted dairy products and destinations. USDA pays cash to U.S. exporters as bonuses, allowing them to sell certain U.S. dairy products in targeted countries at prices below the exporter's costs of acquiring them. DEIP is used to help products produced by U.S. farmers meet competition from subsidizing countries.
    Danish International Development Assistance
  • Date Draft
    A draft which matures a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
    Development Bank of the Great Lakes States
  • Dbk.
  • DCM
    Deputy Chief of Mission
  • DCS
    Defense Conversion Subcommittee
  • dd.
  • dd/s.
    Delivered sound (grain trade)
  • Debt Swaps
    See: Swaps.
  • DEC
    District Export Council
  • Declaration by Foreign Shipper
    The U.S. Customs Service defines this term as a statement by the shipper in the foreign country attesting to certain facts. For example, articles shipped from the United States to an insular possession and then returned must be accompanied by a declaration by the shipper in the insular possession, indicating that, to the best of his or her knowledge, the articles were exported directly from the United States to the insular possession and remained there until the moment of their return to the United States. (see 19 CFR 4.60 and 4.61 on U.S. clearance of vessels bound for a foreign port or ports.)
  • Ded.
  • Def.a/c
    Deferred account
  • Defense Conversion
    "Defense conversion," as applicable to conversion of U.S. defense activity, is
  • Definitional Missions
    See: Trade and Development Agency.
  • DEG
    Deutsche Finanzierungsgesellschaft fur Beteilgungen in, Entwicklungslndern GmbH
  • DEIP
    Dairy Export Incentive Program
  • Delivery Instructions
    Provides specific information to the inland carrier concerning the arrangement made by the forwarder to deliver the merchandise to the particular pier or steamship line. Not to be confused with Delivery Order which is used for import cargo.
  • dely. and re
  • Demarche
    Official discussion with another government carried out on instructions.
  • Demurrage
    Excess time taken for loading or unloading of a vessel not caused by the vessel operator, but due to the acts of a charterer or shipper. Also refers to imported cargo not picked up within prescribed time.
  • Demurrage
    Excess time taken for loading or unloading a vessel, thus causing delay of scheduled departure. Demurrage refers only to situations in which the charter or shipper, rather than the vessel's operator, is at fault.
  • Department of Trade and Industry
    See: British Overseas Trade Board.
  • derrick
    Lifting equipment on board a ship generally used for loading and discharging cargo.
  • despatch
    An agreed upon amount of money that is paid by the shipowner to the shipper or receiver, when loading or discharging is performed faster than the allotted time.
  • DF
    Designated Federal Officer
  • DFA
    Development Fund for Africa
  • Dft.
  • Direct Exporting
    ale by an exporter directly to a buyer located in a foreign country.
  • Dirty Float
    Dirty float refers to a system in which the float of exchange rates is partially determined by government intervention or restrictions to limit appreciation or depreciation; sometimes known as managed float. See: Clean Float.
  • Dis.
  • Disbts.
  • DISC
    Domestic International Sales Corporation
  • discharge
    Remove goods from a ship.
  • Disclosure Meeting
    An informal meeting at which ITA discloses to parties to the proceeding the methodology used in determining the results of an antidumping investigation or administrative review. A disclosure meeting is generally held promptly after the preliminary or final determinations of an investigation or promptly after the preliminary or final results of a review. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • DISH
    Data interchange in Shipping
  • Dispatch
    An amount paid to a charterer by the vessel operator if loading or unloading is accomplished in less time than provided for in the charter party.
  • Dispatch
    An amount paid by a vessel's operator to a charter if loading or unloading is completed in less time than stipulated in the charter agreement.
  • Displ.
  • Distributor
    A foreign agent who sells directly for a supplier and maintains an inventory of the supplier's products.
  • Distributor
    A foreign agent who sells directly for a manufacturer and maintains an inventory on hand.
  • District Export Councils
    DECs serve as a voluntary auxiliary of US&FCS district offices to support export expansion activities. There are 51 DECs with 1500 members which help with workshops and also provide counseling to less experienced exporters.
  • Diversionary Dumping
    This occurs when foreign producers sell to a third country market at less than fair value and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • Diversionary Dumping
    This occurs when foreign producers sell to a third country market at less than fair value and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • DK.
  • DL
    Distribution License
  • dm
  • DMP
    District Marketing Plan
  • DMs
    Definitional Missions
  • Dock Receipt
    A receipt given for a shipment received or delivered at a shipment pier. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as basis for preparation of the Ocean Bill of Lading.
  • Dock Receipt
    A dock receipt is used to transfer accountability when the export item is moved by the domestic carrier to the port of embarkation and left with the international carrier for export.
  • Document Collections
    Dock Receipt
  • Documents Against Acceptance
    Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer's acceptance (signature on) of the attached draft.
  • Documents Against Payment (D/P)
    A type of payment for goods in which the documents transferring title to the goods are not given to the buyer until he has paid the value of a draft issued against him.
  • Domestic Exports
    Exports of domestic merchandise include commodities which are grown, produced, or manufactured in the United States, and commodities of foreign origin which have been substantially changed in the United States, including U.S. Foreign Trade Zones, from the form in which they were imported, or which have been enhanced in value by further manufacture in the United States.
  • Domicile
    The place where a draft or acceptance is made payable.
  • Downstream Dumping
    This occurs when foreign producers sell at below cost to a producer in its domestic market and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • Downstream Dumping
    This occurs when foreign producers sell at below cost to a producer in its domestic market, and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.
  • DPA
    Defense Production Act
  • DPAS
    Defense Priorities and Allocation System
  • Dr.
    Debit. Debtor. Drawer
  • draft
    Alternative spelling of draught.
  • Draft Bill of Exchange
    A written, unconditional order for payment from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee). It directs the drawee to pay a specified sum of money, in a given currency, at a specific date to the drawer. A Sight Draft calls for immediate payment (on sight) while a Time Draft calls for payments at a readily determined future date.
  • draught
    Designates the depth of water available at a port or place.
  • Drawback
    Drawback is a rebate by a government, in whole or in part, of customs duties assessed on imported merchandise that is subsequently exported. Drawback regulations and procedures vary among countries.
  • Drawback
    A partial refund of duties paid on importation of goods which are further processed and then re
  • Drawback System
    The Drawback System, a part of Customs' Automated Commercial System, provides the means for processing and tracking of drawback claims.
  • Drawee
    The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the indicated amount.
  • Drawer
    The individual or firm that issues or signs a draft and thus stands to receive payment of the indicated amount from the drawee.
  • dreading
    Option general cargo
  • DREE
    Direction des Relations Economiques Exterieures
  • dry cargo
    Any commodity which is not liquid.
  • Drydocking
    The removal of a ship from the water for inspection and repair of those parts of a ship that are below the water line. During drydockings, which are required to be carried out periodically, certain mandatory classification society inspections are carried out and relevant certifications are issued. Drydockings for containerships are generally required once every five years, one of which must be a Special Survey.
  • DTAG
    Defense Trade Advisory Group
  • DTI
    Department of Trade and Industry
  • DTR
    Defense Trade Regulations
  • DTSA
    Defense Technology Security Administration
  • DTWG
    Defense Trade Working Group
  • Dual Pricing
    The selling of identical products in different markets for different prices. This often reflects dumping practices.
  • Dual Pricing
    The selling of identical products in different markets for different prices. This often reflects dumping practices.
  • Dumping
    The sale of a commodity in a foreign market at less than fair value. Dumping is generally recognized as unfair because the practice can disrupt markets and injure producers of competitive products in an importing country. Article VI of the GATT permits imposition of antidumping duties equal to the difference between the price sought in the importing country and the normal value of the product in the exporting country. With price
  • Dumping
    Dumping is generally seen as an unfair trading practice. It occurs when a good is sold for less than its "fair value", generally meaning it is exported for less than it is sold in the domestic market or third country markets, or it is sold for less than production cost. Article VI of the GATT permits the imposition of special anti
  • Dumping Margin
    The amount by which the imported merchandise is sold in the United States below the home market or third country price or the constructed value (that is, at less than its "fair value"). For example, if the U.S. "purchase price" is $200 and the fair value is $220, the dumping margin is $20. This margin is expressed as a percentage of the United States price. In this example, the margin is 10 percent. See: Tariff Act of 1930.
  • Duty
    A tax levied by a government on the import, export or use and consumption of goods.
  • Duty
    A tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties).
  • DVC
    Delivery Verification Certificate
  • dwt
    Deadweight tonnage
  • Dy
  • e. & e.a.
    Each and every accident
  • e. & e.l.
    Each and every loss
  • e. & e.o.
    Each and every occurrence
  • E. & O.E.
    Errors and omissions excepted
  • E.C.A.
    Economic Commission for Africa
  • E.C.C.P.
    East coast coal port
  • E.C.E.
    Economic Commission for Europe
  • E.C.G.B.
    East coast of Great Britain
  • E.C.G.D.
    Export Credit Guarantee Department
  • E.C.I.
    East coast of Ireland
  • E.C.L.A.
    Economic Commission for Latin America
  • E.C.M.E.
    Economic Commission for the Middle East
  • E.C.U.K.
    East Coast of United Kingdom
  • E.C.V.
    Each cargo voyage
  • E.E.
    Errors excepted
  • E.E.C.
    European Economic Community
  • E.F.T.A.
    European Free Trade Association
  • E.I.
    Each incident
  • E.L.
    Employer's liability
  • E.M.L.
    Estimated maximum loss
  • E.M.P.L.
    Estimated maximum probable loss
  • E.M.S.
    European Monetary System
  • e.o.h.p.
    Excepted otherwise herein provided
  • E.P.I.
    Earned premium income
  • E.P.I.R.B.
    Emergency position indicator radio beacon
  • E.R.V.
    Each round voyage
  • E.S.D.
  • EAA
    Export Administration Act
  • EAC
    Export Assistance Center
  • EADB
    East African Development Bank
  • EAEC
    East Asian Economic Caucus, European Atomic Energy Community
  • EAI
    Enterprise for the Americas Initiative
  • EAR
    Export Administration Regulations
  • EARB
    Export Administration Review Board
  • EBB
    Economic Bulletin Board
  • EBRD
    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • EC
    European Community
  • EC
    Economic Cooperation Organization
  • ECA
    Economic Commission for Africa
  • ECAs
    Export Credit Agencies
    Export Control Automated Support System
  • ECB
    European Central Bank
    Economic Community of Central African States
  • ECCB
    East Caribbean Central Bank
  • ECCN
    Export Control Classification Number;, formerly:
  • ECE
    Economic Commission for Europe
  • ECGD
    Export Credit Guarantee Department
  • ECJ
    European Court of Justice
    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
  • ECLS
    Export Contact List Service
  • Eco
    Economic/Commercial Section
  • Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
    See: United Nations Regional Commissions.
  • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
    See:United Nations Regional Commissions.
  • Economic Commission for Africa
    See:United Nations Regional Commissions.
  • Economic Commission for Europe
    See:United Nations Regional Commissions.
  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
    See: United Nations Regional Commissions.
  • ECU
    European Currency Unit
  • ED
    Export Development Office
  • EDB
    Exporter Data Base
  • EDC
    Export Development Corporation
  • Edge Act Corporations
    These are banks that are subsidiaries either to bank holding companies or other banks established to engage in international banking and foreign investment and business transactions.
    Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transportation EDIFACT is an international syntax used in the interchange of electronic data. Customs uses EDIFACT to interchange data with the importing trade community.
  • EEA
    European Economic Area
    Eastern Europe Business Information Center
  • EEP
    Export Enhancement Program
    Electronically Erasable Programmable Read
  • EEZ
    Exclusive Economic Zones
  • EFF
    Extended Fund Facility
  • EFTA
    European Free Trade Association
  • EFTA
    European Free Trade Association
  • EIB
    European Investment Bank
  • EIS
    Export Information System
    Electronic License Application and Information Network
  • ELAN
    Export Legal Assistance Network
    Export License Voice Information System
  • EMC
    Export Management Company
  • EMCF
    European Monetary Cooperation Fund
  • EMS
    European Monetary System
  • EMU
    European Monetary Union
  • EN
    European Norm
  • Enabling Clause
    Part I of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) framework which permits developed country members to give more favorable treatment to developing countries and special treatment to the least developed countries, notwithstanding the most
  • Entrepot
    An intermediary storage facility where goods are kept temporarily for distribution within a country or for reexport.
  • Entry (Customs)
    A statement of the kinds, quantities and values of goods imported together with duties, if any, declared before a customs official.
  • Entry Papers
    Those documents which must be filed with the Customs officials describing goods imported, such as consumption entry, Ocean Bill of Lading or Carrier Release, and Commercial Invoice.
  • EOP
    European Patent Office
  • EOTC
    European Organization for Testing and Certification
  • EP
    European Parliament
  • EPC
    Economic Policy Council, European Patent Convention
  • EPCI
    Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative
    Erasable Programmable Read
  • EPS
    Export Promotion Services
  • EPZs
    Export Processing Zones
  • ERLC
    Export Revolving Line of Credit
  • ERM
    Exchange Rate Mechanism
  • ERS
    Economic Research Service
  • ESA
    European Space Agency
  • ESAF
    Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  • ESP
    Exporter's Sale Price
    European Strategic Program for Research and Development in, Information Technologies
  • est.
  • ETA
    Estimated time of arrival
  • ETA
    European Technical Approval
  • ETC
    Export Trade Company
  • ETC
    Export Trading Company
  • ETSI
    European Telecommunications Standards Institute
  • ETUC
    European Trade Union Confederation
  • EU
    European Union
    European Cooperation for the Long
    European Research in Advanced Materials
    European Atomic Energy Community
    European Research Coordination Agency
  • EURL
    Entreprise Unipersonnelle e responsabilite limitee
  • Eurobond
    See: Eurodollars.
  • Eurocurrency
    See: Eurodollars.
  • European Commission
    One of the five major institutions of the European Community, the Commission is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the Treaty of Rome and Community rules and obligations; submission of proposals to the Council of Ministers; execution of the Council's decisions; reconciliation of disagreements among Council members; administration of EC policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy and coal and steel policies; taking necessary legal action against firms or member governments; and representing the Community in trade negotiations with non
  • Evidence of Origin
    Information presented in the Exporter's Certificate of Origin (or Customs Form 353) that certifies that the goods described are eligible for a preferential rate of duty under a trade program.
  • Ex
  • Ex Dock (Import Usage Only)
    The seller is obligated to place the specified goods at the specified price on the import dock clear of all customs and duty requirements. The buyer must do nothing further than pick up the goods within a prescribed time limit.
  • Ex Mill (Ex Warehouse, Ex Mine, Ex Factory)
    The seller is obligated to place the specified quantity of goods at the specified price at his mill loaded on trucks, railroad cars or any other specified means of transport. The buyer must accept the goods in this manner and make all arrangements for transportation.
  • Ex Ship
    Ex Ship" means that the seller will make the goods available to the buyer on board the ship at the destination named in the sales contract. The seller bears all costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the destination.
  • Ex Works
    Ex Works (EXW) at a named point of origin (examples are: ex factory, ex mill, ex warehouse). Under this term, the price quoted applies only at the point of origin and the seller agrees to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer at a specified place on the date or within the period fixed. All other charges are for the account of the buyer.
  • Ex.
    Excluding. Examined. Exchange. Executed. Out of. Without
    Export Credit Enhanced Leverage
  • Excess
    Currency Country
  • Exchange Rate
    The rate of currency conversion between countries. For example, one American dollar can be hypothetically exchanged for six French francs.
  • Exd.
  • Export Declaration
    A formal statement made to the Director of Customs at a port of exit declaring full particulars about goods being exported.
  • Export License
    A permit required to engage in the export of certain commodities and quantities to certain destinations. List of such goods are found in the comprehensive Export Schedule issued by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce.
  • Export Quotas
    Specific restraints imposed by an exporting country on the value or quantity of a good for export purposes.
  • Export Rate
    A freight rate specially established for application on export traffic and generally lower than the domestic rate.
  • Export Restraints
    A restriction by an exporting country of the quantity of exports to a specified importing country. Usually this is a result of a request (formal or informal) of the importing country
  • EXW
    Ex Works
  • F.C.L.
    Full container loads
  • f.d.
    Free discharge. Free delivery. Free despatch. Free docks
  • f.i.o.
  • f.i.o.s.
    Free in and out stowed
  • f.o.b.
    free on board
  • F.O.C.
    Flag of convenience, Free ofcommission, Free of charge, Free of claims
  • f.o.c.
    Free on car, Free of charge
  • f.o.d.
    Free of damage
  • f.o.q.
    Free on quay
  • f.o.r.
    Free on rail
  • f.o.t.
    Free on truck
  • F/R
    Freight release
  • F/X
    Foreign Exchange
  • FAK
    Freight All Kinds
  • FCA
    Free Carrier
  • FCL
    Full container load
  • Federal Maritime Commission
    The FMC is an independent agencys which regulates oceanborne transportation in the foreign commerce and in the domestic offshore trade of the United States.
  • FEU
  • FI
    Free In and Out
  • FI
    Free In
  • Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures System
    The Fines, Penalties, and Forfeitures System, FPFS, a part of Customs' Automated Commercial System, is used to assess, control, and process penalties resulting from violations of law or Customs regulations. FPFS provides retrieval of case information for monitoring case status.
  • Flag
    Nationality of a ship or the country where the ship is registered.
  • Flag of Convenience
    A ship registered under the flag of a nation which offers conveniences in the areas of taxes, crew, and safety requirements.
  • FMC
    Federal Maritime Commission
  • FMV
    Foreign Market Value
  • FOB
    Free on Board
  • fob
    Free on board
  • FOB Airport
    FOB Airport is based on the same principle as the ordinary FOB term. The seller's obligations include delivering the goods to the air carrier at the airport of departure. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been so delivered.
    Free on Rail/Free on Truck
  • Force Majeure
    The title of a standard clause in marine contract exempting the parties for non
  • Foreign Flag
    A reference to a carrier not registered in the United States that flies the American flag. The term applies to air and sea transportation.
  • Foreign Parent Group
    A foreign parent group, FPG, consists of: (1) the foreign parent, (2) any foreign person or entity, proceeding up the foreign parent's ownership chain, that owns more than 50 percent of the party below it, up to and including the ultimate beneficial owner (UBO), and (3) any foreign person or entity, proceeding down the ownership chain(s) of each of these members, that is owned more than 50 percent by the party above it. A particular U.S. affiliate may have several ownership chains above it, if it is owned at least 10 percent by more than one foreign party. In such cases, the affiliate may have more than one foreign parent, UBO, and/or foreign parent group.
  • Foreign Person
    A foreign person is any person resident outside the United States or subject to the jurisdiction of a country other than the United States. "Person" is any individual, branch, partnership, association, associated group, estate, trust, corporation, or other organization (whether or not organized under the laws of any State), and any government (including a foreign government, the U.S. Government, a State or local government, and any agency, corporation, financial institution, or other entity or instrumentality thereof, including a government sponsored agency.) See: Foreign Parent Foreign Parent Group U.S. Affiliate.
    Foreign Exchange
  • Foul Bill of Lading
    A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that the goods were damaged when received.
  • Free In
    A pricing term indicating that the charterer of a vessel is responsible for the cost of loading goods onto the vessel.
  • Free In and Out
    A pricing term indicating that the charterer of a vessel is responsible for the cost of loading and unloading goods from the vessel.
  • Free In And Out (F.I.O.)
    Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
  • Free on Board
    Free On Board (FOB) at a named port of export. The seller quotes the buyer a price that covers all costs up to and including delivery of goods aboard a vessel at a port. FOB is also a method of export valuation.
  • Free on Rail/Free on Truck
    These terms are synonymous, since the word "truck" relates to the railway wagons. The terms should only be used then the goods are to be carried by rail.
  • Free Out
    A pricing term indicating that the quoted prices includes the cost of unloading the goods from the vessel.
  • Free Out (F.O.)
    Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
  • free port
    Separate area within a port where goods which have been imported may be held without duty payment.
  • Free Trade Zone
    An area to which goods may be imported for processing and subsequent export on duty
  • Freight All Kinds
    FAK is a shipping classification. Goods classified FAK are usually charged higher rates than those marked with a specific classification and are frequently in a container which includes various classes of cargo.
  • Freight Forwarder
    An agent whose functions are to help expedite shipments by preparing the necessary documents and making other arrangements for the movement of merchandise.
  • Frt.
  • FSs
    Feasibility Studies
  • ft
  • FTA
    Free Trade Agreement/Area
  • FTC
    Federal Trade Commission
  • FTD
    Foreign Trade Division
  • FTI
    Foreign Traders Index
  • FTZ
    Foreign Trade Zone
  • fwd.
  • FX
    Foreign Exchange
  • GM
    General Manager
  • gr.
    Grain, Gross
  • Gr.t.
    Gross ton
  • Gross ton
    A unit of measurement for the total enclosed space within a ship equal to 100 cubic feet or 2.831 cubic meters.
  • Gross Weight
    The full weight of a shipment, including goods and packaging. Compare Tare Weight.
  • Group of Eleven
    The G
  • grt
    Gross registered tons
  • h
  • H. & M.
    Hull and machinery
  • h. & o.
    Hook and oil damage
  • H.P.N.
  • H.S.S.C.
    Heating, sweating and spontaneous combustion
  • H.T.
  • H.W.D.
    Heavy weather damage
  • h/c
    Held covered (insurance)
  • ha
  • Hbr.
  • hold
    Space below the deck of a ship that is used to carry cargo. The holds of a ship are numbered for purposes of cargo identification and location.
  • hold cleaning
    Cleaning a hold after cargo has been discharged.
  • hp
  • HS
    Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
  • HS
    Harmonized System
  • HSC
    Harmonized System Committee
  • HTS
    Harmonized Tariff Schedule
  • Hull
    Shell or body of a ship.
  • i. and/or o.
    In and/or overdeck
  • I.A.T.A.
    International Air Transport Association
  • I.B.
    Invoice book. In bond
  • I.C. & C.
    Invoice coast and charges
  • I.C.S.
    Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, International Chamber of Shipping
  • i.f.
    In full
  • I.F.C.
    Institute Freight Clauses, International Finance Corporation
  • I.F.F.
    Institute of Freight Forwarders
  • I.H.P.
    Indicated Horse
  • I.I.L.
    Insurance Institute of London
  • I.L.U.
    Institute of London Underwriters
  • I.M.I.F.
    International Maritime Industry Forum
  • I.M.O.
    Intrnational Maritime Organization
  • I.R.
    Inland Revenue
  • i.r.o.
    In respect of
  • i.v.
    Invoice value. Increased value
  • i/o
    In and/or overdeck
  • IATA
    International Air Transport Association
  • IAU
    International Accounting Unit
  • IC
    Import Certificate, Integrated Circuit
  • ICC
    International Chamber of Commerce
  • ICD
    Inland clearance depot
  • ICTF
    Intermodal Container Transfer Facility
  • IDA
    International Development Association
  • IE
    Infrequent Exporter
  • IMO
    International Maritime Organization, a United Nations agency that issues international standards for shipping.
  • Import Certificate
    The import certificate is a means by which the government of the country of ultimate destination exercises legal control over the internal channeling of the commodities covered by the import certificate.
  • Import Rate
    A rate established specifically for application on import traffic and generally less, when so published, than a domestic rate.
  • Import Restrictions
    Import restriction, applied by a country with an adverse trade balance (or for other reasons), reflect a desire to control the volume of goods coming into the country from other countries may include the imposition of tariffs or import quotas, restrictions on the amount of foreign currency available to cover imports, a requirement for import deposits, the imposition of import surcharges, or the prohibition of various categories of imports.
  • Import Surcharge
    A charge on imports over and above regular tariffs or customs fees.
  • In
    Bond System
  • Ince.
  • Indent
    A requisition for goods, enumerating conditions of the sale. Acceptance of an indent by a seller constitutes his agreement to the conditions of the sale.
  • Indirect Exporting
    Sale by the exporter to the buyer through a domestically located intermediary.
  • Indirect Tax
    A tax that is levied on expenditures, i.e., a sales tax, excise tax or value added tax.
  • Inland Bill of Lading
    A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier. Although a through bill of lading can sometimes be used, it is usually necessary to prepare both an inland bill of lading and an ocean bill of lading for export shipments.
  • Inland Carrier
    A transportation line which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points.
  • Inspection Certification
    Some purchasers and countries may require a certificate of inspection attesting to the specifications of the goods shipped, usually performed by a third party. Inspection certificates are often obtained from independent testing organizations.
  • Inst. Wties
    Insurance warranties
  • Installment Shipments
    Successive shipments permuted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time. If not shipped within that period, the credit ceases to be available automatically unless otherwise authorized in the letter of credit.
  • Insurance Certificate
    This certificate is used to assure the consignee that insurance is provided to cover loss of or damage to the cargo while in transit.
  • Int.
  • Integrated Carriers
    Carriers that have both air and ground fleets; or other combinations, such as sea, rail, and truck. Since they usually handle thousands of small parcels an hour, they are less expensive and offer more diverse services than regular carriers.
  • Inter Arr
    Internal arrangements
  • Interest Rate Swaps
    See: Swaps.
  • Intermediate Consignee
    An intermediate consignee is the bank, forwarding agent, or other intermediary (if any) that acts in a foreign country as an agent for the exporter, the purchaser, or the ultimate consignee, for the purpose of effecting delivery of the export to the ultimate consignee.
  • Intermediate survey
    The inspection of a ship by a classification society surveyor that takes place 24 to 36 months after each special survey.
  • Intermodal Container Transfer Facility
    ICTF is a site where cargo is transferred from one form of transit to another, such as rail to ship.
  • International Telegraphy and Telephone Consultative Committee
    CCITT (French: Comite
  • Invisibles
    This refers to areas of non
  • IRR
    Internal rate of return
  • Irrevocable
    This the most common instrument of credit in international trade, carries an irrevocable obligation of the issuing bank to pay the beneficiary when drafts and documents are presented in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. An irrevocable letter of credit, once issued, cannot be amended or canceled without the agreement of all named parties. As such, it must have a fixed expiration date.
  • Irrevocable Letter of Credit
    A letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the issuing bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee. It is as good as the issuing bank.
  • ISO
    International Organization for Standardization
  • Issuing Bank
    A bank which opens a straight or a negotiable letter of credit. This bank assumes the obligation to pay the beneficiary or a correspondent bank if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letters of Edit.
  • ITA
    International Tin Agreement, International Trade Administration
  • ITAR
    International Traffic in Arms Regulations
  • ITC
    International Trade Commission
  • J/A
    Joint Account
  • Joint Venture
    A business undertaking in which more than one firm share ownership and control of production and/or marketing.
  • jumboising
    Conversion of a ship to increase its cargo area capacity by dividing the ship and adding a new section.
  • K.D.
    Knocked down
  • keel
    Longitudinal girder at the lowest point of a ship.
  • kg
  • kHz
  • kl
  • km
  • knot
    One nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour.
  • Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau
    The KfW (English: Reconstruction Loan Corporation) provides
  • l
  • L.A.S.H.
    Lighter aboard ship
  • L.C.L.
    Less than full container load
  • L.d.d.
    Loss during discharge
  • L.d.l.
    Loss during loading
  • L.I.P.
    Life Insurance Policy
  • L.N.G.
    Liquified natural gas carrier
  • L.P.G.
    Liquified petroleum gas carrier
  • L.R.
    Lloyd's Register of Shipping
  • l.s.
    Lump sum
  • L.S. Cls.
    Livestock clauses
  • L.S.T.
    Local standard time
  • L.T.A.
    Long term agreement
  • L.U.A.
    Lloyd's Underwriters' Association
  • L.W.
    Low water
  • L/A
    Letter of authority. Landing account. Lloyd's agent
  • L/C
    Letter of Credit
  • L/U
    Leading Underwriter
  • l/u
    Laid up, Letter of undertaking
  • LASH
    Lighter aboard ship
  • latitude
    Distance north or south of the equator.
  • LCB
    Local Competitive Bidding
  • LCL
    Less than full container load
  • ldg.
  • Ldg. & Dly.
    Landing and delivery
  • lds.
  • LDT
    Light displacement tons
  • Leg. Chgs.
    Legal charges
  • length overall
    Maximum length between the farthest ends of a ship
  • Letter Of Credit
    An instrument of audit issued by the buyer's bank, at the buyer's request, in which the issuing bank promises to pay the seller upon presentation of documents stipulated in the terms and conditions of the audit
  • Liab.
  • lift
    on lift
  • lift
    Weight of an individual piece of cargo lifted or carried.
  • line
    A company that operates a ship on a regular basis between advertised ports and offers space for goods in return for freight based on a tariff of rates.
  • Lkg. & bkg.
    Leakage and breakage
  • Lkge & Bkge
    Leakage and breakage
  • LNG
    Liquefied natural gas
  • loa
    Length overall
  • longitude
    Distance east or west of the Greenwich meridian.
  • LPG
    Liquefied petroleum gas
  • Lt.
  • LTD
    Limited (Liability)
  • LTFV
    Less Than Fair Value
  • LTGE
  • Ltr.
  • LUF
    Lifting unit frame
  • m
  • M. & W.
    Marine and war risks
  • m. pack
    Missing package
  • M.H.
    Main Hatch
  • M.I.P.
    Marine Insurance Policy
  • M.O.H.
    Medical Officer of Health
  • M.P.L.
    Maximum probable loss
  • M.R.
    Mate's receipt
  • M.S.
    Motor ship, Machinery survey
  • M.T.
    Mean Time
  • M/D
    Memorandum of deposit
  • M/d
    Malicious damage
  • Machy
  • main port
    Port that handles a significant proportion of a country's seaborne trade. It normally can accommodate many ships and has a wide range of facilities.
  • Mal.d.
    Malicious damage
  • manifest
    Document containing a full list of a ship's cargo that is extracted from the bill of lading. A copy, known as the outward manifest is kept with the Customs authorities at the port of loading. Another copy, known as the inward manifest is kept at the discharge port.
  • Marine Cargo Insurance
    Broadly, insurance covering loss of, or damage to, goods at sea. Marine insurance typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses in excess of those which can be legally recovered from the carrier that are sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy, and various other causes. Three of the most common types of marine insurance coverage are "free of particular average" (f.p.a.), "with average" (w.a.), and "All Risks Coverage."
  • Market Access
    The ability of a domestic industry to penetrate a related market in a foreign country. The extent to which the foreign market is accessible generally depends upon the existence and extent of trade barriers.
  • Market Access
    Market access refers to the openness of a national market to foreign products. Market access reflects a government's willingness to permit imports to compete relatively unimpeded with similar domestically produced goods.
  • Market Disruption
    Market disruption refers to the situation which is created when a surge of imports in a given product line causes sales of domestically produced goods in a particular country to decline to an extent that the domestic producers and their employees suffer major economic hardship.
  • Marks of Origin
    The physical markings on a product that indicate the country of origin where the article was produced. Customs rules require marks of origin of most countries.
  • Mdse.
  • Memoranda of Understanding
    See: International Agreements.
  • merchant
    Term often used in liner bills of lading to describe the shipper, receiver or consignee, bill of lading holder or the agent of any of these.
  • merchant marine
    All the ships of a country carrying goods.
  • metric ton
    1,000 kilograms.
  • MHz
  • MIA
    Marine Insurance Act
  • Min. B/L
    Minimum Bill of Landing
  • MIN./DEP.
    Minimum and deposit premium
  • mixed cargo
    More than one product carried on board a ship.
  • Mixed Credit
    Mixed credit refers to the practice of combining concessional and market
  • mobile crane
    General purpose crane capable of moving around a port. Some types are capable of lifting very heavy loads.
  • Mort.
  • MOU
    Memorandum of Understanding
  • mst.
  • MTO
    Multimodal transport operator
  • Multilateral Agreement
    An international compact in which three or more parties participate.
  • Multilateral Steel Agreement
    Attainment of an MSA was an achievement intended as part of the
  • Multinational Corporation
    A multinational corporation is a business which owns or controls product or service facilities outside the country in which it is based.
  • n.a.
    Information not available. Net absolutely
  • N.C.A.R.
    No claim for accident reported
  • N.C.V.
    No commercial value
  • n.d.w.
    Net dead weight
  • n.e.
    Not exceeding
  • n.e.p.
    Not elsewhere provided
  • n.e.s.
    Not elsewhere specified
  • N.H.P.
    Nominal horse
  • N.K.O.R.L.
    No known or reported loss
  • N.O.C.
    Notice of cancellation
  • N.V.
    Norske Veritas
  • N.V.O.C.C.
    Non vessel operating common carrier
  • N/C
    New charter, New crop
  • N/f
    No funds
  • N/m
    No mark
  • n/s
    Not sufficient
  • net weight
    Weight of the goods only which does not include their packing.
  • Newbuilding
    A new ship under construction or just completed.
  • NG
  • nom. std.
    Nominal standard
  • non.d.
    Non delivery
  • notify party
    Group, whose name and address appear in a bill of lading, who is to be notified by the shipping company of the arrival of goods at the discharge port. There is normally a box on the bill of lading where the details of the notify party are inserted.
  • NPV
    Net present value
  • nrt
    Net registered tonnage
  • NTMs
  • NVO
  • o.a.
    Over all
  • O.A.L.
    Overall length
  • O.B.O.
    Oil/bulk/ore carrier
  • O.N.R.
    Original net rate
  • O.R.
    Owner's risk, Original rate
  • o/a
    On account of
  • O/b
    On board
  • o/c
    Overcharge, open cover
  • O/D
  • o/d
    On demand
  • O/o
    Order of
  • O/t
    On truck
  • OBL
    Ocean Bill of Lading
  • obo
    Oil/bulk/ore carrier
  • Oc.B/L
    Ocean bill of landing
  • Occ.
  • Ocean Freight Forwarder
    See: Freight Forwarder.
  • OEM
    Original Equipment Manufacture
  • OFD
    Ocean Freight Differential
  • Offshore Manufacturing
    Offshore manufacturing is the foreign manufacture of goods by a domestic firm primarily for import into its home country.
  • oil port
    Port whose main or only type of cargo handled is oil. This port is often characterized with deep water jetties to accommodate large oil tankers and with storage tanks and refineries.
  • OPEC
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Open Insurance Policy
    A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to a single shipment.
  • open rate
    Freight rate negotiated by a shipper with a shipping line for shipping in excess of a minimum agreed quantity of cargo on any one ship.
  • open side container
    Shipping container with side doors that drop down to give unrestricted access to the sides of the container for loading or discharging.
  • optional cargo
    Cargo that is destined for one of the ship's discharge ports, where the exact port is not known when the goods are loaded. The optional cargo is stowed so that it can be removed at any of the optional ports without disturbing other cargo.
  • original bill of lading
    Bill of lading that bears the original signature of the master of a ship or his agent.
  • over stow
    To stow an item of cargo on top of another in a ship.
  • OVs
    Orientation Visits
  • P
    Principal Officer
  • P
  • P. & I.
    Protection and indemnity
  • P. & L.
    Profit and Loss
  • P. O. D.
    Paid on delivery
  • P.A.
    Particular average
  • P.A.N.
    Premium advice note
  • P.B.
    Permanent Bunkers
  • P.D.
    Port dues
  • P.L.
    Public liability
  • p.o.c.
    Port of call
  • P.O.D.
    Pay on delivery, Port of distress
  • p.p.
    Picked ports, Per procurationem (on behalf of)
  • P.R.
    Polski Rejestr. Port Risks, prorata
  • P.S.T.
    Pacific Standard Time
  • p.t.
    Private terms
  • P.T.
    Premium transfer
  • P/A
    Particular average. Power of attorney. Private account
  • P/C
    Price Current, Petty Cash, Percent, Particular charges, profit commission
  • P/L
    Partial loss
  • P/S
    Public sale
  • Pac.
    Pacific coast ports
  • Pass
  • pd.
    Passed. Paid
  • Pers. Acc.
    Personal Accident
  • Pfo.
  • PFP
    Policy Framework Paper
  • pgke.
  • pier
    Structure where ships can berth.
  • pilotage
    Assisting the master of a ship in navigation when entering or leaving a port.
  • PLC
  • pm
  • pontoon
  • port
    Harbor having facilities for ships to moor, load, or unload.
  • Port Shopping
    Port shopping is the practice of exporters and importers choosing a particular port on the basis of their assessment of Customs' treatment, rather than on the quality of physical facilities and efficiency.
  • PP
    Purchase Price
  • ppd.
  • ppt.
    Prompt loading
  • pratique
    Permission granted by the authorities at a port, after assessing the health of those on board the arriving ship, to allow them to make physical contact with the shore.
  • Prem. Red.
    Premiums reducing
  • Prem. Res.
    Premium reserve (reinsurance)
  • Primary Product
    A product in an unprocessed or natural state (e.g. an agricultural, mineral or fishery product).
  • Principal Officer
    See: Title and Rank.
  • Pro Forma Invoice
    An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, and similar characteristics).
  • Product Groups
    Commodity groupings used for export control purposes. See: Export Control Classification Number.
  • Profit
    For the purposes of constructed value in an antidumping duty investigation or review, the profit used is the profit normally earned by a producer, from the country of export, of the same or similar product as that under investigation. By statute, the amount of profit shall not be less than 8 percent of the sum of general expenses and cost.
  • Protection and indemnity insurance
    Insurance obtained through a mutual association formed by ship owners to provide liability indemnification protection from various liabilities to which they are exposed in the course of their business, and which spreads the liability costs of each member by requiring contribution by all members in the event of a loss.
  • PSV
  • Public Limited Company
    See: Limited (Liability).
  • Purchase Price
    A statutory term used in dumping investigations to refer to the United States sales
  • Purchasing Agent
    An agent who purchases goods in his/her own country on behalf of large foreign buyers such as government agencies and large private corporations.
  • PVOs
    Private Voluntary Organizations
  • Q.S.
    Quota share
  • Qlty
  • qn.
  • QRs
    Quantitative Restrictions
  • r.d.
    Running days
  • r.o.b.
  • R.P.
    Return premium
  • Rds.
  • Reexports
    For export control purposes: the shipment of U.S. origin products from one foreign
  • Ref.
    Refrigerating machinery
  • register tonnage
    Volume of a ship expressed in tons.
  • Reinst.
  • Request/Offer
    A negotiating approach whereby requests are submitted by a country to a trading partner identifying the concessions another seeks through negotiations. Compensating offers are similarly tabled and negotiated by delegates of the countries involved.
  • res.
    Residue, reserve
  • Revocable Letter of Credit
    A letter of credit which can be cancelled or altered by the drawee (buyer) after it has been issued by the drawee's bank.
  • ro
    ro, roll
  • ro/ro
  • rolling cargo
    Cargo on wheels that can be driven or towed on to a ship.
  • Rotn. no.
    Rotation number
  • RWA
    Returned Without Action
  • S&D
    Special and Differential Treatment
  • S. & A.
    Signing and accounting (procedure)
  • S. & F.A.
    Shipping and Forwarding Agent
  • S. & H/exct.
    Sundays and holidays excepted in lay days
  • S. & L.
    Sue & Labor (charges)
  • S. B.
    Short Bill
  • S. to S.
    Station to station
  • S.A.
    Salvage Association
  • s.a.n.r.
    Subject to approval no risk
  • S.B.M.
    Single buoy mooring
  • s.b.s.
    survey before shipment
  • s.c.
    Salvage charges
  • S.C.A.
    Settlement of claims abroad
  • S.d.
    Short delivery
  • S.D.
    Sea damage
  • S.D.A.
    Single administrative document
  • S.D.H.F.
    Standard Dutch Hull Form
  • S.E.P.
    Subject to endorsement on the policy
  • S.H.P.
    Shaft horse
  • S.O.L.
    Ship owner's liability
  • S.R.L.
    Ship repairers' liability
  • S.S. & C.
    Same sea and country or coast
  • S.S.N.
    Standard shipping notice
  • s.v.
    Sailing vessel
  • S.W.
    Shipper's weights
  • S.W.D.
    Seawater damage
  • S.W.G.
    Standard wire gauge
  • s/a
    Subject to approval
  • S/A
    Subject to Acceptance (insurance)
  • S/Fee
    Survey Fee
  • S/I
    Sum insured
  • S/L
    Sue and labor
  • S/L.C.
    Sue and labor clause
  • S/L.Ch.
    Sue and labor charges
  • S/N
    Shipping note
  • Sales Representative
    An agent who distributes, represents, services, or sells goods on behalf of foreign sellers.
  • SALM
    Single anchor leg mooring
  • SAS
    Saudi Arabian Standards Organization
  • Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO)
    SASO was established in April 1972 as the sole Saudi Arabian government organization to promulgate standards and measurements in the kingdom. Primarily, SASO promulgates standards for electrical equipment and some food products. Some of these standards have been adopted by the Gulf Cooperation Council.
  • Schedule B
    Refers to 'Schedule B, Statistical Classification of
  • Scrapping
    The sale of a ship as scrap metal.
  • sd.
  • SED
    Shipper's Export Declaration
    SHIELD is an interagency export control committee that reviews licenses involving chemical or biological weapons.
  • Shipper's Export Declaration
    A form required by the Treasury Department and completed by a shipper showing the value, weight, consignee, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Harmonized Schedule B (see above) identification number.
  • Shipping Weight
    Shipping weight represents the gross weight in kilograms of shipments, including the weight of moisture content, wrappings, crates, boxes, and containers (other than cargo vans and similar substantial outer containers).
  • Ship's Manifest
    A list, signed by the captain of a ship, of the individual shipments constituting the ship's cargo.
  • Short Supply
    Commodities in short supply may be subject to export controls to protect the domestic economy from the excessive drain of scarce materials and to reduce the serious inflationary impact of satisfying foreign demand. Items that the U.S. controls for short supply purposes include petroleum and petroleum products, unprocessed western red cedar, and shipment of horses by sea. The controls are included in the Export Administration Regulations.
  • SIC
    Standard Industrial Classification
  • Sister ships
    Ships of the same class and specifications typically built at the same shipyard.
  • Sk.
  • Sld.
  • Special survey
    The inspection of a ship by a classification society surveyor that takes place every five years, as part of the recertification of the ship by a classification society.
  • Spot market
    The market for immediate chartering of a ship, usually for single voyages.
  • Std.
    Standard (timber trade)
  • Stev. Liab.
    Stevedores' liability
  • stevedore
    Person whose functions are to load, stow and unload ships.
  • stg
  • stk
  • stow
    Position in a ship where goods are placed for their
  • Str.
  • Strd.
  • Subsidy
    There are two general types of subsidies: export and domestic. An export subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent or exports. A domestic subsidy is a benefit not linked to exports, conferred by the government upon a specific industry or enterprise or group of industries or enterprises.
  • Substantial Suppliers
    If a country supplies approximately 10 percent of the trade in a given item imported to a second country, the first country is said to have a substantial supplier status.
    Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Transactions
  • T.B.
    Trial Balance
  • T.B.A.
    To be advised, To be agreed
  • T.C.I.
    Time charterer's interest
  • T.D.W.
    Tonnage deadweight
  • T.E.
    Trade expenses
  • T.I.B.
    Trimmed in bunkers
  • T.I.V.
    Total insured value
  • T.L.
    Total loss
  • T.L.O.
    Total loss only
  • T.L.V.O.
    Total loss of vessel only
  • T.O.R.
    Time on Risk
  • T.O.T.
    Terms of trade
  • T.O.V.A.L.O.P.
    Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liability for Oil Pollution
  • T.P.I.
    Tons per inch
  • T.P.Liab.
    Third party liability
  • T.P.N.D.
    Theft, pilferage and non
  • T.Q.
    Tale quale (as found)
  • T.S.I.
    Total sum insured
  • T.T.
    Telegraphic transfer
  • t/h
    Tones per hour
  • T/L
    Total loss
  • T/O
    Transfer order
  • T/S
  • Tare Weight
    The weight of a container and/or packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains.
    Integrated Tariff of the European Community
  • Tariff
    A tax assessed by a government in accordance with its tariff schedule on goods as they enter (or leave) a country. May be imposed to protect domestic industries from imported goods and/or to generate revenue. Types include ad valorem, specific, variable, or some combination.
  • Tariff Surcharges
    An import tax that is usually assessed at a flat rate over and above whatever duties are assessed.
  • TEU
  • Through Bill of Lading
    A single bill of lading covering receipt of the cargo at the point of origin for delivery to the ultimate consignee, using two or more modes of transportation.
  • Time charter
    A charter under which the ship owner hires out a ship for a specified period of time. The ship owner is responsible for providing the crew and paying ship operating expenses while the charterer is responsible for paying the voyage expenses and additional voyage insurance. The ship owner is paid charter hire, which accrues on a daily basis.
  • u.c.b.
    Unless caused by
  • U.L.C.C.
    Ultra large crude carrier
  • U.N.
    United Nations
  • U.N.L.
    Ultimate net loss
  • u.p.
    Under proof
  • U.T.
    Unlimited transshipment
  • U/A
    Underwriting account
  • U/C
    Under construction
  • U/D
    Under deck
  • u/o
    Use and occupancy
  • U/R
    Under repair
  • UCP
    Uniform Customs and Practices
  • ULCC
    Ultra large crude carrier
  • Ultimate Consignee
    The ultimate consignee is the person located abroad who is the true party in interest, receiving the export for the designated end
  • UMR
    Ultimate Consignee
  • UN
    United Nations
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    United Nations Children's Fund
  • V.C.
    Valuation clause
  • V.L.C.C.
    very large crude carrier
  • v.o.p.
    Value as in original policy
  • V.T.S.
    Vessel Traffic Systems
  • Value Added Tax (VAT)
    A tax which is assessed at each stage of production on the amount of value contributed at each stage to the final product.
  • Value Date
    The date on which payment must be made by the named bank. This date is determined by the payee, the payer or the bank.
  • Variable Levy
    A tariff subject to alterations as world market prices change, the alterations are designed to assure that the import price after payment of the duty will equal a predetermined "gate" price.
  • VAT
  • Vd.
  • VER
    Voluntary Export Restriction
  • Vertical Export Trading Company
    An export trading company that integrates a range of functions taking products from suppliers to consumers.
  • vessel
    Ship or boat.
  • VL
    Variable Levy
  • VLCC
    Very large crude carrier
  • VO
  • Voyage charter
    A charter under which a ship owner hires out a ship for a specific voyage between the loading port and the discharging port. The ship owner is responsible for paying both ship operating expenses and voyage expenses. Typically, the charterer is responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports. The ship owner is paid freight on the basis of the cargo movement between ports.
  • Voyage expenses
    Expenses incurred due to a ship's traveling from a loading port to a discharging port, such as fuel (bunkers) cost, port expenses, agents' fees, canal dues, extra war risk insurance and commissions.
  • W.A.
    With average
  • W.A.
    With Average
  • W.B.
    Water ballast, Warehouse Book, Way Bill
  • W.C.
    West Coast
  • w.g.
    Weight guaranteed
  • W.H.O.
    World Health Organization
  • w.o.b.
    Washed overboard
  • W.O.L.
    Wharfowners' liability
  • w.p.
    Without prejudice, Weather permitting
  • W.P.A.
    With particular average
  • w.p.p.
    Waterproof paper packing
  • W.R.
  • w.r.o.
    War risk only
  • W/d
  • W/M
    Weight and /or Measurement
  • W/W
    Warehouse warrant
  • waybill
    Document used as a receipt for goods. Unlike a bill of lading it is not a document of title. This document is also synonymous with liner waybill, ocean waybill, or sea waybill.
  • Wdg.
  • Wf.
  • WH
    World Health Organization
  • wharf
    Structure built alongside the water where ships berth for loading or unloading goods.
  • Wharfage
    A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo.
  • white products
    Refined products.
  • Without Reserve
    A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is empowered to make definitive decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented.
  • WM
    World Meteorological Organization
  • wt.
  • Wtd
  • Wties
  • Wty
  • x.c.
    Ex coupon
  • x.d.
    Ex dividend
    Ex interest
  • XS Loss
    Excess loss reinsurance
  • XS pt.
    Excess point
  • Yard
    Fenced off, outdoor storage and repair area
  • yaw (to)
    Failure of a ship to steer a straight course.
  • Yt
  • ZIP
    Zone Improvement Plan
  • Zone
    Area, belt or district extending about a certain point defined for transport and/or charge purpose.